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Rabu, September 22, 2010

Daerah Kuala Terengganu

Latar belakang Kuala Terengganu
 Kuala Terengganu ialah sebuah daerah di Negeri Terengganu yang luasnya lebih kurang 60, 528.1 hektar persegi dan merupakan Ibu Negeri bagi Negeri Terengganu dan bandar Di Raja bagi Negeri Terengganu Darul Iman.  Keseluruhan bahagian Timur Daerah Kuala Terengganu secara Geografinya menghadap  Laut China Selatan dan termasuk Pulau Redang dan Pulau Bidong yang merupakan pulau dan destinasi Pelancongan utama di Negeri ini.  Bandar Kuala yang berada dimuara sungai Terengganu yang luas dan merentasi sempadan daerah lain ke Hulu Terengganu dan hulu Nerus. Sungai yang satu ketika dahulu merupakan laluan sangat penting bagi aktiviti pengangkutan dan perdagangan. Dalam hubungan ini juga sebahagian besar sosio-kebudayaannya dipengaruhi oleh budaya pesisir, berjiwa dan berwatak pelaut. Secara tradisinya penduduk di daerah ini merupakan nelayan, pembina bot dan pelayar yang mahir.


Sejarah menunjukkan Terengganu dan Kuala Terengganu sendiri telah dikenali semenjak beratus-ratus tahun dahulu lagi. Dalam buku-buku sejarah China seperti ’ Ling-wai-Tai-ta ’ karangan Cao-Cu-Fei tahun 1178, menyebut ’ Teng-ya-nu’ dan buku Cu-fan-Cih ’ karangan Cao-Ju-Kua tahun 1226 menyebut Teng-ya-nung’.  Kedua dua nama tersebeut merujuk kepada nama Tengganu yang dikatakan jajahan takluk Kerajaan Seri Wijaya ( San-fo-Cih ) pada kurun ke 2. Ptolemy seorang ahli kaji bintang Greek telah mencatatkan dua buah Pelabuhan di Pantai Timur Semenanjong Tanah Melayu, Pelabuhan itu ialah Primula dan Kole . Primula dipercayai di Kuala Terengganu dan Kole di Kemaman.
 Catatan penulis China pada masa Dinasti Sui ada juga menyebut tentang sebuah Negeri yang dinamai ’ Tan-Tan’ yang menghantar Ufti ke China dan  Paul Wheatley merumuskan negeri yang dimaksudkan di dalam catatan China itu mungkin berkerajaan di Kuala Besut atau Kuala Terengganu.  Catatan tersebut juga menyebut bahawa Kuala Terengganu dan Kuala Berangmerupakan pusat perniagaan utama di Asia Tenggara pada abad kedua belas.   Sungai Terengganu merupakan laluan utama dan penting bagi pedagang-pedagang asing pada zaman itu.  Perdangan barangan seperti kayu gaharu, kayu laka, gading bermutu tinggi di jadikan pertukaran dengan emas dan perak.  Pengembara China, ‘ Chao Ju Kua ’ dalam catatan yang ditulisnya pada tahun 1225, ada menyebu ‘ Teng-Ya-Nong ‘ atau Kuala Terengganu sebagai sebuah pelabuhan perdagangan yang penting di persisiran pantai timur Tanah Melayu.
 Penemuan khazanah sejarah yang sangat bernilai lain, ia itu  seketul batu granit berbentuk empat segi yang berukir tulisan dengan ukuran 84cm tinggi , 53cm lebar bahagian atas dan 27cm lebar dibahagian bawah dan berat batu tersebut 215 kg dan diukir dengan tulisan pada empat penampangnya menggunakan tulisan yang menggunakan campuran bahasa Sanskrit dan bahasa Melayu,  pada tahun 1303 Masehi / 702 Hijrah. Batu tersebut di kenali dengan nama batu bersurat.   Penemuan itu juga telah menjadi bahan sejarah yang tidak ternilai dan merupakan satu-satunya bukti yang menunjukkan kemasukan agama Islam ke Tanah Melayu pada abad ke empat belas lagi.
 Sejarah Kesultanan Terengganu bermula pada awal abad kelapan belas lagi.  Tun Zainal Abidin Paduka Maharaja, bergelar Sultan Zainal Abidin I ( 1725 – 1733 ) telah ditabalkan sebagai sultan Terengganu yang pertama.  Kegemilangan berterusan pemerintahan kesultanan Terengganu telah membawa kepada kemakmuran dan kemajuan Kuala Terengganu sebagai Ibu Negeri selepas pekan Kuala Berang dan daerah-daerah yang lain.  Proses pembangunan Infrastruktur telah dimulakan semasa pemerintahan Sultan Terengganu yang kesembilan ia itu Sultan Umar ( 1839 ). Beberapa batang jalan raya dibina di Kuala Terengganu dan laluan jalan-jalan wujud hingga ke hari ini.  Sutan Umar mangkat pada tahun 1876. Sultan Terengganu yang kesepuluh ialah Sultan Ahmad Shah II. Baginda memerintah selama 6 tahun dan magkat pada tahun 1881.  Takhta Terengganu diwarisi oleh putera baginda Tengku Zainal Abidin yang ditabalkan dengan gelaran Sultan Zainal Abidin III.  Di zaman peperintahan baginda, Terengganu dikatakan mengalami pembangunan yang pesat.  Bilangan Penduduk bertambah dengan cepat dan negeri Terengganu pada masa itu dibahagikan kepada 13 daerah.  Kerajaan terengganu juga pada masa itu telah mempunyai matawang sendiri yang dinamai ’keping’ dan ’pitis’. Wang-wang itu diperbuat daripada timah dan bentuk bulat dan leper.   Pada masa itu juga cukai dikenakan ke atas rakyat. Cukai itu dinamakan ’banci’ dan ’serah’ – juga disebut sebagai cukai kepala.
 Sumber daripada catatan sejarah tersebut juga telah menunjuk dan membuktikan bahawa akitiviti pedagangan aktif dengan kemasukan pedagang-pedagang dari luar yang menggunakan sungai  bermula daripada ‘ kuala’/ muara sungai Terengganu untuk meneruskan perjalanan ke Kuala Berang.  Pedagang-pedagang tersebut telah memasarkan hasil mereka di  Kuala Terengganu.  Tempat yang dijadikan kawasan perdangangan ialah di sekitar Kedai Hilir, Kedai Payang dan Kampung cina.
 Kedudukan Bandar Kuala Terengganu yang strategik pada masa dahulu hinggalah sekarang, di mana ianya merupakan muara kepada dua sungai utama ia itu sungai Terengganu dan sungai Nerus.  Muara yang luas dan dikenali sebagai ‘ Telok Warisan ‘ begitu strategik, cantik dan indah. 
 Pulau Duyung yang terletak di permukaan muara serta beberapa pulau lain termasuk Pulau Wan Man, Pulau Sekati dan Pulau duyung Kecil memperlengkapkan lagi keindahan Bandar Kuala Terengganu.
 Pada masa pemerintahan Sultan Zainal Abidin III juga perlantikan merinyu telah di lakukan bagi melaksanakan peraturan sukatan dan timbangan pada masa itu.  Sebuah mahkamah telah ditubuhkan untuk memastikan undang-undang dapat dilaksanakan secara lebih adil dan teratur. Undang-Undang Tubuh Kerajaan Terengganu diwujudkan.  Sebuah penjara turut dibina.
 Hubungan persahabatan dengan Kerajaan Siam telah dijalinkan, dimana baginda Sultan telah menghantar ufti berupa ’ Bunga Emas’ setiap tiga tahun sekali.  Upacara perarakan Bunga Emas dan Perak di Kuala Terengganu pada tahun 1909 telah dibuat secara besar-besaran. ( Rujukan Gambar – Arkib Negera Malaysia – Lampiran ).  Hubungan dua hala tersebut telah membawa kepada penghantaran pegawai-pegawai daripada Kerajaan Siam ( Thailand ) ke Kuala Terengganu semasa pertabalan Sultan Zainal Abidin.  Maharaja Siam juga telah melawat Kuala Terengganu pada tahun 1887.
 Selain terkenal dengan kraf tangannya, pelbagai jenis hasil kesenian kebudayaan dapat dilihat aktif  seperti tarian ulit mayang, tarian rodat, tarian saba, tarian balai, tarian gayung otar-otar, permainan gasing.
 Selain daripada itu, pelbagai usaha pembuatan perayu nelayan, perahu kolek, setak, sekoci, jalur dan yang paling masyur ialah perahu payang.  Lokasi pembuatan perahu masih kekal dari dahulu hinggalah sekarang termasuk dikampung Losong, Duyung, Telok Pasu dan Pulau Rusa.  Industri kotej seperti pembuatan batik, songket, seni ukir kayu dan barang-barang tembaga masih kekal dan sangat berfeadah.
 Pantai dan Pulau-pulau yang berada didalam kawasan Kuala Terengganu seperti pulau Redang, Pulau Bidong, Pulau Duyung, pantai Batu Burok, Telok Ketapang merupakan destinasi kunjungan dan pelancongan utama.
 Kuala Terengganu kini semakin mendapat tempat dimata dunia dimana pelbagai kejohanan sukan bertaraf Nasional dan Antarabangsa diadakan di Bandar Kuala terengganu.  Antaranya ialah Monsoon Cup Terengganu, Sultan’s Cup Endurance Ride dan FEI World Endurance Championship 2008.

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